Forgot your password?
typodupeerror
Earth News

Alabama Wages War Against the Perfect Weed 360

Posted by kdawson
from the keep-watching-the-skies-dexter dept.
pickens writes "Dan Berry writes in the NY Times that the State of Alabama is spending millions of dollars in federal stimulus money to combat Cogongrass, a.k.a. the perfect weed, the killer weed, and the weed from another continent. A weed that 'evokes those old science-fiction movies in which clueless citizens ignore reports of an alien invasion.' Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is considered one of the 10 worst weeds in the world. 'It can take over fields and forests, ruining crops, destroying native plants, upsetting the ecosystem,' writes Berry. 'It is very difficult to kill. It burns extremely hot. And its serrated leaves and grainy composition mean that animals with even the most indiscriminate palates — goats, for example — say no thanks.' Alabama's overall strategy is to draw a line across the state at Highway 80 and eradicate everything north of it; then, in phases, to try to control it to the south. But the weed is so resilient that you can't kill it with one application of herbicide, you have to return several months later and do it again. 'People think this is just a grass,' says forester Stephen Pecot. 'They don't understand that cogongrass can replace an entire ecosystem.' Left unchecked, Pecot says 'it could spread all the way to Michigan.'"
This discussion has been archived. No new comments can be posted.

Alabama Wages War Against the Perfect Weed

Comments Filter:
  • by Anonymous Coward on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @05:46AM (#29513257)

    Here in British Columbia we don't wage war on it, it's our #1 export.

    • by Cruciform (42896) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @07:52AM (#29513747) Homepage

      Out here on the opposite coast, another kind of weed is flourishing.
      Japanese Knotweed. The stuff grows insanely fast and spreads rhizomatically, so it's a bitch to kill.
      And the really sad thing is that when it's 8 feet tall and in blossom it must look like the catch of the day for the cops, because they keep flying over to check out the encroaching patch.

      • There is some of the real stuff growing along the roads out west too, but the THC content is so low that you would probably only get a headache, but if you pick it or go near it on a road side, then the cops will definitely arrest you. I also thought that BC only had the stuff for medical cases? You gotta wonder why just one guy would need tons of this stuff? Being from the south, I think I would rank kudzu above all. It is a useful plant though and maybe there could be a little more uses from it with some

        • Re:The perfect weed? (Score:5, Informative)

          by HangingChad (677530) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @09:20AM (#29514435) Homepage

          Being from the south, I think I would rank kudzu above all.

          My goats will clean up kudzu like it's candy. Not only will they strip the leaves, you'll see them standing on their hind legs trying to drag the vines down out of the trees. They eat leaves, vines, stems, roots and all. Reminds of a casino buffet on seafood night. And because they have a 4 chambered stomach, the digestion process pretty much kills the seeds. I've never seen them spread it anyway. As a bonus, goats can handle the terrain kudzu seems to thrive in.

          If goats don't eat cogongrass, then that is some bad stuff. They can strip the leaves off blackberry bushes while avoiding the stickers, all they leave behind are stands of dead stalks. If it's that bad...that's a real problem.

          • by nomadic (141991) <nomadicworld.gmail@com> on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @10:09AM (#29515005) Homepage
            I think that is the first time on slashdot I've seen someone refer to "my goats."
      • Re:The perfect weed? (Score:4, Interesting)

        by muckracer (1204794) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @08:26AM (#29513945)

        > Out here on the opposite coast, another kind of weed is flourishing.
        > Japanese Knotweed.

        True that. Have seen it take over miles and miles of banks on the Delaware
        river. Nothing else survives!
        AFAIK you have to cut it carefully and then actually burn it. This stuff will
        sprout even on a compost where you threw the cut-off plants. Any ideas to
        prevent regrowth at the original site...salt on the roots perhaps?

      • Re: (Score:3, Informative)

        by Shakrai (717556)

        Japanese Knotweed. The stuff grows insanely fast and spreads rhizomatically, so it's a bitch to kill.

        I was going to post on this but you beat me to it. It's virtually impossible to kill. I've helped dig it up before and have discovered roots that exceed 20 feet in length. Nothing native to the Americas seems to be able to compete with it. It's a real PITA.

      • Re:The perfect weed? (Score:4, Informative)

        by hedge49 (147092) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @09:51AM (#29514763)

        The United States is now home to some of the most unruly plants in the world, like Kudzu vine, which has caused farmers to abandon crops at first sight of the vines at field's edge. It can be seen sneaking across highways on the lightning wires over power lines, and creating strange sculptures of the barns, tractors, and forests it covers throughout the southeast. Florida has two of these plants, the Kajeput, and the Australian Pine (Aussies call it American Pine..Apparently, nobody wants it) Both of these trees were introduced by the US Army Corps of Engineers to perform some function ancillary to one or another of their endeavors, but now reviled as environmentally obnoxious in their ability to grow in any condition from standing water to alkali flat. Kajeput has the additional benefit of burning hot to its top (oily sap and leaves) thereby killing off the native palms that used to survive naturally occurring fires. Remember what Newton said, "Nature abhors a vacuum". And stuff like these plants, and some of the other, more mobile creatures that have apparently taken heart and moved on from their original, pest-opposed environments, are now enjoying the benefits of life with no natural opposition, except people.

    • > Here in British Columbia we don't wage war on it, it's our #1 export.

      Now imagine a hybrid...a joint venture so to speak between AL and BC.
      Northern Cogon anyone? :-)

  • Kudzu (Score:5, Funny)

    by Thanshin (1188877) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @05:48AM (#29513269)

    Nice.

    I'll have to plant some of that inbetween the patches of kudzu.

    Now I only need a face-eater and I'll finally have a respectable death-world themed garden.

    • by aitala (111068)

      Well the real question is which is going to win out, Kudzu, cogongrass, or crown vetch....

      Dr. E

  • by noundi (1044080) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @05:52AM (#29513277)
    Mutate it to bring forth a strain which is tasty, and make those genes dominant. In 50 years time the goats will come around.

    Alternatively mutate goats to have no sense of taste.
    • by milosoftware (654147) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @06:08AM (#29513349) Homepage

      Having seen goats chewing happily on pieces of clothing and other garbage, mutating goats to have no sense of taste sounds to me like mutating rabbits to have long ears. (I was planning to write something slightly different but less suited for small children and Americans here.)

      • The basis is sound. (Score:2, Interesting)

        by El Jynx (548908)

        I think they're barking up the wrong tree; controlling the weed seems like an expensive pasttime. Instead, I'd combat it genetically:
        - start building up cultures of the weed, test the characteristics of different strains (go for ones that are more susceptible to infections, aphids, lower burn temperatures, less serrated edges, etc), breed these together, and create a weaker strain; distribute that across infested regions to weaken the weed.
        - start building up cultures of creatures that can (potentially) see

        • by digitig (1056110) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @07:49AM (#29513739)

          I think they're barking up the wrong tree; controlling the weed seems like an expensive pasttime. Instead, I'd combat it genetically: - start building up cultures of the weed, test the characteristics of different strains (go for ones that are more susceptible to infections, aphids, lower burn temperatures, less serrated edges, etc), breed these together, and create a weaker strain; distribute that across infested regions to weaken the weed.

          Surely natural selection would just mean that the weaker versions of the weed would be selected against and so their genes would be eliminated from the gene pool again, leaving just the toughest varieties?

        • by oldhack (1037484) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @08:57AM (#29514237)

          Bugs are the plankton of the land.

          Bugs are also bugs of the land. Does your algorithm ends with gorillas dying off in the winter?

    • Re: (Score:2, Insightful)

      by MjDelves (811950)

      Mutate it to bring forth a strain which is tasty, and make those genes dominant. In 50 years time the goats will come around. Alternatively mutate goats to have no sense of taste.

      ..... but then it won't spread so fast cos it's busy being eaten, and so unmutated strain will outcompete it leaving you back at square one.... Anything that is so undiscriminating about what it eats will probably eat everything else, posing another problem.

      • by noundi (1044080)

        Mutate it to bring forth a strain which is tasty, and make those genes dominant. In 50 years time the goats will come around. Alternatively mutate goats to have no sense of taste.

        ..... but then it won't spread so fast cos it's busy being eaten, and so unmutated strain will outcompete it leaving you back at square one.... Anything that is so undiscriminating about what it eats will probably eat everything else, posing another problem.

        If it was evolution, yes, but one could simply "spread the seeds."

        • If it was evolution, yes, but one could simply "spread the seeds."

          Exactly. Spread the seeds for the weak strain, and then kill off the strong strain so that the seeds can grow without competition, and before long the strong strain will have been completely eliminated!

    • by hey! (33014) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @07:54AM (#29513751) Homepage Journal

      Genetic alteration to make inedible things food (oh, sorry, got that backwards -- make food inedible) is so 1970s.

      We've got to figure out how to turn this stuff into biodiesel.

    • Re: (Score:3, Insightful)

      by lubricated (49106)

      That's not how it works. Just because the gene is dominant, doesn't mean that it will spread.

  • by celibate for life (1639541) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @05:52AM (#29513279)
    I had an entirely different thing in mind when I read "the perfect weed".
    • Re: (Score:3, Funny)

      by ElephanTS (624421)

      Yeah right me too! Nothing about the smokability and I RTFA!!

    • Re: (Score:2, Informative)

      by plams (744927)
      I reached the Wikipedia article on Imperata cylindrica [wikipedia.org], saw the "Weed problems" section and thought, "..slang is usually rejected by the sta... oooohhh, that kind of weed!"
    • Re: (Score:2, Funny)

      by noidentity (188756)

      I had an entirely different thing in mind when I read "the perfect weed".

      Don't worry, they've been waging a decades-long war against that one too. Maybe they'll have more success against this one...

    • by laughing_badger (628416) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @07:16AM (#29513591) Homepage
      "Man, that is flagrant false advertising!" :)
    • yea...same here...for some reason, I thought of that one scene from one of the Road Trip movies...where the nerd develops the "perfect weed" that is undetectable....etc.

    • by jollyreaper (513215) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @07:59AM (#29513773)

      But therein lies the solution. Get Monsanto to genetically modify pollen from the plant to include huge quantities of THC. Release pollen into the wild. As the THC levels in the plants rise, tell the stoners that pot may be illegal but this stuff isn't even on the radar. Inform Frito-Lay to ramp up production. Then I guess I'll just stick a few ???'s in here and declare profit!

  • by Anonymous Coward on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @05:54AM (#29513289)

    Genetically engineer a variante of that grass that is resistant to herbicides and infest your "favorite" competitor's/enemy's fields.

    Criminials and terrorists these days are all about the quick short term damages. Nobody thinks about long term, sustainable damage these days. *sigh* Amateurs!

    • Don't even think of this. In the first half of 1950s, East Europe took for granted that the invasion of Leptinotarsa decemlineata that took place at that time was the evil work of American imperialists and their agents, even though there certainly was no positive proof of that. On the Internet, there is a scan of a cute public notice from that time signed by a "Regional Commisioner for Erradicating the American Beetle". There were even educational books for the kids [mac.com], which were a little less cute.

      So if you

    • by sqldr (838964) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @08:03AM (#29513797)
      I'm ahead of you there. A couple of years ago, I photoshopped the words "OH HAI" on a picture of a kitten, and now we're already seeing the results of my work.. the complete destruction of the entire English language is already nigh.
  • by La Gris (531858) <lea,gris&noiraude,net> on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @06:01AM (#29513323) Homepage

    If it can be processed as fuel and ever spread to Michigan.. "Hey GM, fuel comes to you!"

    Alternatively, an army of junk weed smoker could eradicate it better than goats.

  • by Gori (526248) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @06:02AM (#29513325) Homepage

    If it is that resilient and fast growing, you will not be able to control it anyhow. Many, many examples of invasive species throughout the world show this. So, just learn how to harvest it and make biodiesel/biogas/electricity out of it. No intensive agriculture, ferilizers or herbicides needed. Plus, this might piss off the corn/ethanol lobby enough to actually start taking action against the grass. Ether way, we win. Oh yeah, biodiversity losses, but that is shafted anyway...

  • I totally read this as

    "Congress, a.k.a. the perfect weed"

  • by assemblerex (1275164) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @06:15AM (#29513371)
    Can this voracious weed perhaps be turned into biofuel? It seems to grow fast, and almost anywhere.
    Why not grind it up and compost it to make methane or something.
  • Japanese Knot Weed (Score:5, Informative)

    by buggy_throwback (259436) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @06:29AM (#29513401) Homepage
    We have the same problem in the UK with Japanese Knot Weed. Nothing eats it, it can respawn from the smallest cutting. So you can't burn it, you can't throw it away, you can only poison it. And each stem has to be done individually, and the process needs to be repeated two or three times to kill the bloody thing. They're talking about introducing some japanese insects that feed on it, but then what's to say they wont prefer strawberries or wheat or something else?
    • Its payback for all the blackberry homesick poms planted in Australia.

    • Re: (Score:3, Interesting)

      by dayjn (942897)
      Four years ago, I did battle with Japanese Knot Weed in the back garden of a house we rented in Cambridge. I tried to kill it for two years by digging it up and applying weed killer. It was very resilient, but I was winning the battle before we left that house. This was a small area looked after by a pretty determined individual (me), I can't imagine what it would take to get rid of it from the the huge areas it occupies such as the valleys around Cardiff.
  • The State of Alabama is spending millions of dollars in federal stimulus money to combat Congress?

  • by mbone (558574) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @07:02AM (#29513533)

    This sounds a lot like Kudzu - another plant brought over from Japan.

    From TFA "For a while, government officials encouraged the use of cogongrass as a forage crop and as a way to stem soil erosion."

    We did that with Kudzu too. What's with these agricultural guys promoting alien species they clearly know nothing about ?

    Although, if nothing wants to eat it, why promote it as a forage crop ? That does suggest that some animal must like it. There must be some reason why the South of Japan is not one mass of Kudzu and cogongrass.

    • Re: (Score:2, Informative)

      by juggledean (792527)

      You can eat kudzu leaves as salad or boiled greens. Goats will eat it as well.

    • Re: (Score:3, Funny)

      by Tom (822)

      There must be some reason why the South of Japan is not one mass of Kudzu and cogongrass.

      The reason is called "evolution". If you have it around long enough, animals will adapt to eat it. If nothing else works, they will during the first starvation period.

      If you introduce it to a new ecosystem, you have to wait for a few ten-thousand years or so before that happens. Clearly, the governor is not a patient man.

    • by jollyreaper (513215) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @08:37AM (#29514047)

      There must be some reason why the South of Japan is not one mass of Kudzu and cogongrass.

      There's a reason [wikipedia.org] but I don't think you're gonna like it.

  • by retech (1228598) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @07:07AM (#29513551)
    Thank god something living is willing to move back into Michigan. There is hope to save this state!
  • green fuel (Score:5, Insightful)

    by confused one (671304) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @07:14AM (#29513579)
    Aren't we supposed to all be about green energy these days? Pay someone to collect it. Shred and compress it into fuel pellets. Burn it to make heat or electricity.
    • by captainpanic (1173915) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @07:31AM (#29513657)

      There are a number of hints that say that we're dealing with a great energy-crop:

      1. It burns extremely hot (yay)
      2. It grows fast (good)
      3. It certainly won't require herbicides (meaning it's "biological").

      We just need some biologists to turn this stuff into fuel (ethanol)... alternatively, it can be pelletized.

  • The amazing stuff about this is, that you can play 36 holes on it in the afternoon, take it home and just get stoned to the bejeezus-belt, that night, on this stuff.
  • If it burns extremely hot, it's not a "weed" -- it's potentially "the perfect biofuel."

    Really, what's the problem here? A sustainable biofuel crop that produces heat very efficiently, and grows rapidly? Isn't that exactly what the greendroids have been looking for all this time?
    • Re: (Score:3, Informative)

      by NewWorldDan (899800)
      The problem is that we need liquid biofuels. Ethanol production is just not going to happen. The first step in production is fermentation and that wastes 40% of your source energy. Then purification requires a lot of energy. At least with biodiesel, all you're doing is splitting off a glycerol molecule. But then, what do you do with all that glycerol? Back to point, ethanol - not very useful. Let's see if Monsanto can bio-engineer this thing to grow big oily pods.
  • Run for your lives! (Score:4, Informative)

    by vorlich (972710) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @09:54AM (#29514805) Homepage Journal
    Well we can chalk this up alongside: The termite colony in England that will soon devour the East Coast, the English Wallaby colony, The devouring rhododendron of Wales, the German Racoon Colony, and lets not forget all those other weeds busy clogging up the waterways of Europe nor the somewhat rampant (and delicious baked in a pie) American Grey Squirrel locked in a Star Wars type war with the Rebel Alliance of Red Squirrels - also in the UK.

    Then there's the Florida Pythons (not a new comedy team), South American Fire ants and First Amongst Equals the Cane Toad in Oz.

    However I do believe the English landed Gentry managed to finish off the last member of the Coypu Colony (sort of giant hamster) but have had no success with the now wild and thoroughly naturalised Mink which is doing an "Alien" along the clogged up waterways ripping everything with a heartbeat to shreds as it advances further and further North.

    Thanks in most part to: Stupidity, Cack Science, well-meaning Animal Libbers, Globalisation and the simple fellow who thought it would be a great idea to have those charming racoons climbing in and out of German wheelie bins (a sort of Euro-dumpster)
  • SEED MARS! (Score:4, Interesting)

    by starglider29a (719559) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @09:59AM (#29514875)
    Send a zillion seeds and drop them on Mars. Wait. Within years, the planet will be green. Oxygen abundant. Then we can burn half of it, and turn up the heat in the greenhouse~
  • by Mr. Firewall (578517) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @10:49AM (#29515503) Homepage

    "... the State of Alabama is spending millions of dollars in federal stimulus money to combat Congress, a.k.a. the perfect weed, the killer weed, and the weed from another continent. A weed that 'evokes those old science-fiction movies in which clueless citizens ignore reports of an alien invasion.'

    Congress (Imperialista corruptivus) is considered one of the 10 worst weeds in the world. 'It can take over farms and factories, ruining cops, destroying Native Americans, upsetting the economic system,' writes Berry. 'It is very difficult to kill.' But the weed is so resilient that you can't kill it with one election, you have to return two years later and do it again. Left unchecked, Pecot says 'it could spread all the way to Europe.'"

  • It's everywhere. (Score:4, Informative)

    by Remus Shepherd (32833) <remus@panix.com> on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @11:14AM (#29515803) Homepage

    I just love the Wikipedia page [wikipedia.org] on this stuff. It's pretty clinical and detached, until you get to the bottom and see where it's listed as a 'native' species:

    Categories: Poaceae | Invasive plant species | Flora of the Canary Islands | Flora of Algeria | Flora of Egypt | Flora of Morocco | Flora of Ethiopia | Flora of Kenya | Flora of Tanzania | Flora of Uganda | Flora of Burundi | Flora of Cameroon | Flora of Gabon | Flora of Rwanda | Flora of Benin | Flora of Burkina Faso | Flora of Ghana | Flora of Guinea | Flora of Liberia | Flora of Mali | Flora of Nigeria | Flora of Senegal | Flora of Sierra Leone | Flora of Togo | Flora of Malawi | Flora of Mozambique | Flora of Zambia | Flora of Zimbabwe | Flora of Botswana | Flora of Lesotho | Flora of Namibia | Flora of South Africa | Flora of Swaziland | Flora of Oman | Flora of Yemen | Flora of Afghanistan | Flora of Cyprus | Flora of Iran | Flora of Iraq | Flora of Israel | Flora of Turkey | Flora of Armenia | Flora of Azerbaijan | Flora of Georgia (country) | Flora of Russia | Flora of China | Flora of Japan | Flora of Korea | Flora of Bhutan | Grasses of India | Flora of Nepal | Flora of Pakistan | Flora of Sri Lanka | Flora of Cambodia | Flora of Laos | Flora of Burma | Flora of Thailand | Flora of Vietnam | Flora of Indonesia | Flora of Malaysia | Flora of Papua New Guinea | Flora of the Philippines | Poales of Australia | Flora of Queensland | Flora of Victoria (Australia) | Flora of Tasmania | Angiosperms of Western Australia | Flora of South Australia | Flora of the Northern Territory | Flora of Greece | Flora of Italy | Flora of France | Flora of Portugal | Flora of Spain

    I, for one, welcome our silica-edged (!) sawtooth grass overlords.

  • I live in Alabama (Score:3, Interesting)

    by dorpus (636554) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @11:18AM (#29515853)

    If the spread of Cogongrass means fewer bugs to annoy us, fewer trees to topple over and kill people, fewer birds who block vents with their nests, fewer deer to ruin cars, I don't think any locals would care. We have too much nature as it is. Alabama turns into a black river of roaches at night, a yellow fog of meat bees during the day, a green carpet of fallen leaves and trees during storms. Every shoe, dark corner in the house is inhabited by aggressive scorpions who come at us. Our walkway is a highway for the local population of leprosy-carrying armadillos. We keep our house very clean, and all food (including crackers) is immediately put in the refrigerator, but every morning, we wake up to a mass grave of dead beetles on the pesticide-treated carpet. Birds have figured out how to break into vent grills and build nests inside. We avoid the woods because the grass carries a black fog of disease-carrying ticks. If you think I'm making this up, you haven't lived here. We live in Alabama's biggest city, and in the countryside it's worse. Every rainstorm means the roads turn into an obstacle course of fallen trees, and it's extremely dangerous. A lot of cows, horses, boars, armadillos, dogs, deer, and other animals threaten drivers. Street lights that work are scarce, so at night everything becomes as dark as a cave. Driving is considered a man's job in the countryside.

    Environmentalism is valued by people who live in big cities, for whom forests appear to be a scarce resource.

    • Re: (Score:3, Informative)

      by Entropius (188861)

      I lived in Alabama (Huntsville) for over 20 years, and it's not as bad as you describe. Sure, stuff grows well there, but it's not as though you can't use the roads because of the deer and you can't open your doors for fear of roaches and yellowjackets.

      The only real threatening endemic species is rednecks.

      • Re: (Score:3, Interesting)

        by dorpus (636554)

        With the recent torrential rains we've had, we do check the door before opening, since there is about a 50% chance of seeing a roach or yellowjacket outside the door. The other night, my relative's porch was overrun with palmettos, we couldn't count them all. Their roof awning is abuzz with the sounds of dozens of carpenter bees drilling holes. Every time I come back from my relative's house on top of a mountain at night, it turns into an odyssey of mysterious blobs of kudzu, and cat faces, coyote faces

  • by Ngarrang (1023425) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @11:30AM (#29516035) Journal

    Grows anywhere? Doesn't need to be watered or fertilized? Sounds like a possible biomass for electricity production to me, and a cheap one. Maybe this plant could also be used to hinder desertification.

  • by zmollusc (763634) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @11:39AM (#29516205)

    It never rains but it pours :-(
    Not only do we have the oil fields drying up so alternative fuels are needed to run power stations but now we have this useless, oily, hot-burning plant that grows like crazy anywhere and nobody knows how to get rid of it.

  • by MartinSchou (1360093) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @12:06PM (#29516707)

    Isn't this just typical of the American South and Bible Belt?

    Here we have a very visible proof of evolution in action (one species moving into a new area and out competing everything else), and what does the Alabama state government do? They try to eradicate that proof in a foolish attempt to show that an intelligently designed ecosystem is better, especially when it's helped by God's chosen: man.

    I say to the silent majority of Americans who aren't buying into intelligent design, that you should rise up and fight this atrocity. Go out there and plant Cogongrass in your nears gardens, parks, forests and wildlife areas! Viva la Evolutión!

    </joke>

  • by Rogerborg (306625) on Wednesday September 23, 2009 @06:02PM (#29522795) Homepage

    Mr. Lovett puts on his cap and heads out to his 2006 pickup, which has 188,000 miles on it

    To save you looking at the slideshow, yes, of course it's a Toyota.

Any given program, when running, is obsolete.

Working...