Five Free Calculus Textbooks 430
from the finest-kind dept.
(See each) | |
author | (See each) |
pages | (See each) |
publisher | (See each) |
rating | (See each) |
reviewer | Ben Crowell |
ISBN | (n/a) |
summary | (See each) |
First-Year Calculus Notes | |
author | Paul Garrett |
pages | 70 |
URL | http://www.math.umn.edu/~garrett/calculus/ |
rating | 7/10 |
summary | Would make a good concise refresher. |
The author provides this book in PDF format. As far as I can tell from the somewhat ambiguous notice on his web page, the book is intended to be licensed under the GPL copyleft license. That warms my heart as an open-source enthusiast, but it's slightly strange, for a couple of reasons. First, the GPL is a software license, and is less suitable as a copyleft license for books than the GFDL or a CC license. Also, the source code of the book isn't available (it appears to have been done in LaTeX), which I think makes it legally impossible under the GPL to redistribute the book, whereas the author's intent in GPL-ing it was presumably to make it freely distributable. Just as I was in the process of submitting this review to Slashdot, the author replied to an e-mail I'd sent him about this, and it sounds like he's interested in clearing up this issue, and really does want his book to be free as in speech.
This is a lively and very readable treatment of basic calculus. At 70 pages, it's a welcome antidote to the usual bloated textbooks, and the topics that are included match up pretty well with my own opinions of what it's really vital for a student to know after taking a calculus course. The tone is conversational without being condescending or cutesy, and the author almost always explains why he's introducing something, rather than just throwing it at the reader. (An unfortunate exception is the opening section on inequalities.) There is no attempt at rigor whatsoever, which I consider to be a feature, not a bug. Applications are discussed, although not enough for my taste (and I have to suppress my gag reflex every time I see a calculus book that insists on presenting the acceleration of gravity in non-metric units).
Although the book comes with some of the paraphernalia of a complete college textbook, such as homework problems, it's probably not the kind of book that another professor could just adopt as a stand-alone text, nor would I recommend it for someone learning calculus on her own for the first time. The title suggests that the author had in mind more of a memory aid, or a way to keep students from having to scribble madly in their notebooks for an hour and a half at a stretch. It lacks an index and illustrations, and there are some misfeatures in terms of organization: the chapters aren't numbered, and the homework problems are scattered around where they're hard to find. In some cases it sounds as though the first time a word or concept is used, he's assuming the reader has already heard it defined. I would, however, recommend this book to someone who needs to refresh her memory of calculus, and doesn't want to spend hours wading through epsilons and deltas to get to the highlights. It might also be a good option for the student who is completely broke, and needs a reference to use in place of an officially required text that carries an exploitative price tag. Although there are other calculus textbooks that can be downloaded without paying, this is the only one I'm aware of that follows the typical order of topics, and is also (AFAICT) copylefted, so that we can be assured it needn't evaporate if the author signs a publishing contract, or loses interest in maintaining his web site.
Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An Introduction to Calculus | |
author | Dan Sloughter |
pages | 600 |
URL | http://math.furman.edu/~dcs/book/ |
rating | 6/10 |
summary | Takes too long to get there. |
Like Garrett's text, this one appears to have been done in LaTeX, is licensed under the GPL, and appears to suffer from the same legal problems, because it's not available in source form.
The book is well written, and seems to have been well designed for practical classroom use. The approach is visual and intuitive, and there are lots and lots of graphs and numerical calculations. I felt, however, that it took a long time to get going, and the idiosyncratic selection of topics might make it difficult to use at many schools. Although the very first page gives a nice clear explanation of what calculus is about, we then have to wait until about page 136 to learn any calculus. I say "about" because of the inconvenient way in which the book is split up into 54 separate PDF files, each of which has page numbers starting from 1. I had to estimate page number 136 by weighing part of the book on a postal scale. Related to this problem is the fact that the book has no index or table of contents.
The book uses many numerical examples, which gives it a modern feeling . After all, calculus was invented by Newton and Leibniz because they needed to do calculations in closed form, but nowadays it's more natural to solve many problems on a computer, using a spreadsheet or a programming language. The book has a problem, however, in integrating the computer stuff with the didactic parts and the homework problems. No indication is given of how the numerical examples were actually computed. The author may consider it a trivial task to set up a spreadsheet or write a ten-line program in Python or Mathematica, but it's not so trivial for many students, and they will need extensive guidance from elsewhere to be able to carry out such computations for themselves. This makes the text incomplete in practical terms: any instructor wanting to use it would have to come up with extensive support materials to go with it. It also contributes to my sense that the book lacks focus. Students have a hard enough time learning the basic concepts and techniques of integration and differentiation, but to use this book, they would also have to learn about computer programming and difference equations. Adding to the bloat is the author's tendency to discuss every possible pathological case before moving on to the main event. It's a little like a parent trying to explain sex to his child, but feeling obliged to explain foot fetishes before getting on with where babies come from.
The examples that students are expected to do numerically also presuppose quite a bit of resourcefulness and insight. For instance, one of the homework problems asks the student to sum the series 4(1-1/3+1/5-1/7+...) numerically, adding up "...a sufficient number of terms to enable you to guess the value of the sum," which turns out to be pi. The trouble is that over 600 terms are required to get the sum to settle down in the second decimal place, which is about the minimum I'd want to see to convince me it was pi. Pity the poor student who first tries 10 terms on a calculator, then 50 terms on a spreadsheet, and then finally realizes he's going to need to write a Python program to get the job done. Of course, some students might enjoy the process, but my experience (teaching college science majors taking introductory physics) is that the majority don't consider computers to be fun.
Lectures on Calculus | |
author | Evgeny Shchepin |
pages | 143 |
URL | http://www.math.uu.se/~oleg/ShchepinCalc.html |
rating | 2/10 |
summary | Not for consumption by mere students. |
This book is from a set of lectures on calculus given by visiting professor Evgeny Shchepin at Uppsala University in 2001. The first obstacle potential readers will encounter is that the book is provided in PostScript format, with hideous bitmapped type 3 fonts embedded. This makes it virtually impossible to view the book on a monitor in any legible representation, although it looks fine when you print it out. The typical Windows or MacOS user will give up long before that point. This is a shame, because it's not at all difficult these days to get LaTeX to output Adobe Acrobat files that are viewable on virtually any computer, and are legible on the screen. There is no index, and virtually no graphs or other figures.
The main question in my mind is for whom this book was written. This deep, dark forest of mathematical symbols, interspersed with ungrammatical English, is meant to follow the historical development of the subject, but it never makes it clear why the historical route is the right one to follow. There are many seemingly pointless digressions.
Is it possible that this book was meant for young people taking their first calculus course? The presence of end-of-chapter homework problems would seem to imply that it was. If so, I feel sorry for them. Although it's cute that the author manages to develop integrals before limits, and derivatives only at the very end, I somehow doubt that real, live students would read this book and exclaim, "We sure are lucky to be learning calculus using this novel order of topics!" Most of the problems begin with the words "Prove that...," and neither the text nor the problems give any of the standard applications to biology, economics, physics, etc.
Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals | |
author | Jerome H. Keisler |
pages | 992 |
URL | http://www.math.wisc.edu/~keisler/calc.html |
rating | 10/10 |
summary | I wish I'd learned calculus from it! |
Textbooks are usually unoriginal, because most teachers are conservative in their choices. They get used to teaching a subject a certain way, and don't want to change. This is a calculus textbook with a very unusual approach. It was published in 1976, and evidently was successful enough, despite its idiosyncracy, to justify a second edition a decade later. Its publisher, however, eventually allowed it to go out of print. The copyright has reverted to the author, and he has made it available in digital form on his web site. The digital book consists of pages scanned in from a printed copy and assembled into an Acrobat file, so it's a big download, and you can't do some things with it, such as searching the text for a particular word.
The title leaves no doubt that the book is different. Whereas most textbooks these days define derivatives and integrals in terms of limits, this one uses infinitesimals. The real numbers are generalized to make a number system called the hyperreal numbers, which include infinitesimally small numbers as well as infinitely large ones. Essentially, this represents a return to the way Newton and Leibniz originally conceptualized the calculus, but with more rigor.
I don't know about other people, but when I learned calculus, I got very uneasy when we got to the Leibniz notation. My teacher said that dy/dx wasn't really one number divided by another, but rather an abbreviation for the limit of the quantity y/x. That wasn't so bad, but what really made me queasy was when he then suggested that you could usually get the right answer by treating these dx and dy thingies as if they were numbers. The scary part was that word "usually." What was legal and what wasn't? How many sizes of infinitesimals were there? Was it legal to say that 1/dx was infinite? What operations would lead to paradoxes? What about proofs that used infinite numbers to show that 1=2? The wonderful thing about this book is that you end up knowing exactly what you can and can't do with infinities and infinitesimals, and you get to use the Leibniz notation in all its intuitively appealing glory. For instance, the chain rule really can be proved simply by writing (dz/dy)(dy/dx)=dz/dx, simply canceling the dy's.
It would be interesting to see how students reacted to this book when learning calculus from scratch. I suspect that they'd have an easier time with many of the concepts like implicit differentiation, which seems so awkward in the traditional approach, but they might be scared a little by the initial development of the hyperreal number system. The book develops the hypperreal system axiomatically, which left me yearning for more of a constructive method. Then again, we develop the rational and real numbers axiomatically in high school, so maybe it's not such a big issue. My initial unease was cleared up by a few crucial examples:
- If H and K are infinite, then H-K may be infinite or finite -- it depends on which infinite numbers H and K are.
- If H is infinite, then (2H+1)/(H+1) isn't equal to 2, but it differs infinitesimally from 2.
- (H+1)^{1/2}-(H-1)^{1/2} is infinitesimal.
I confess, however, to a little residual indigestion at the way the author develops the integral. He introduces finite Reimann sums first, and gives several numerical examples. But next, instead of taking the limit of sums with more and more terms, he takes the finite sum with n terms, and replaces n with an infinite integer. Instant vertigo!
This is a wonderful, original textbook, and I hope it remains free on the web forever -- it's not copylefted, so unfortunately it may disappear if the author stops maintaining his web site.
The Calculus Bible | |
author | G.S. Gill |
pages | 370 |
URL | http://www.math.byu.edu/Math/CalculusBible/ |
rating | 3/10 |
summary | Incomplete, and badly written. |
I'm reviewing this book in February of 2004. It's clearly not a finished product, and I'm not sure whether or not the author is still actively working on it. The book is available from the Brigham Young University math department's server, but the author isn't on the department's list of faculty, which makes me think he may have moved on to another job and abandoned the book. It's provided as a PDF file. There is no copyright page and no licensing agreement, so it's hard to know the book's real legal status.
The path through the topics is pretty standard for an introductory calculus course: a review of functions and trigonometry, followed by limits, differentiation, and integration. There is a good selection of problems, although to my taste as a physicist far too few are applied to anything useful. There is a table of contents, but no index. There are no illustrations; sprinkled throughout the text are little placeholders for graphs that just say "graph."
Although the problems I've referred to so far are ones that could be fixed if the author continued to work on the book, I feel that there are some more fundamental problems with this text that will not go away unless it is extensively rewritten. The style is extremely dry, and moreover the author has a habit of introducing concepts without any explanation or preparation. A symptom of this is that the student is expected to grind through the first hundred pages without any clear statement about what calculus is, what it's good for, or even whether the initial chapters are calculus (they're not). Equal prominence is given to topics that I would consider vital (the fundamental theorem of calculus) and others that I would label as trivial (tabulations of facts) or esoteric (the Dedekind cut property).
The Leibniz notation, dy/dx, is given with only this explanation "To emphasize the fact that the derivatives are taken with respect to the independent variable x, we use the following notation, as is customary..." Huh? So are these dx and dy things numbers? Is dy/dx the quotient of them?
Even if the missing graphs were included, the approach would still be relentlessly symbolic, rather than visual. For instance, integration by parts is introduced without ever giving its geometric interpretation.
See any serious problems with this story? (Score:5, Funny)
Yeah... it's an f'en review of five calc books. The author should be committed and never allowed to enter society again.
Re:See any serious problems with this story? (Score:5, Funny)
author_insanity
----------------
reviewedd_ca
author_insanity approaches infinity?
Re:See any serious problems with this story? (Score:5, Funny)
More useful than you think (Score:5, Informative)
BTW, Anyone studying math who hasn't been turned on to http://mathworld.wolfram.com [wolfram.com] should definitely check it out.
Re:More useful than you think (Score:5, Interesting)
This story couldn't have been any better timing for me. I just sold my calc book back to my school because I was short on cash. It wasn't a very good calc book in the first place, but I was dissapointed to get rid of it anyways. Now, I not only know of some free ones, but I've got some reviews to help me know where to start.
Re:More useful than you think (Score:5, Funny)
Selling your books is very short sighted. You need to be thinking more of a long term stategy like giving blood and eating Raman noodles.
Re:More useful than you think (Score:3, Funny)
Ah, but one must first come up with bus fare in order to get to the blood bank.
Re:More useful than you think (Score:3, Informative)
Re:More useful than you think (Score:5, Interesting)
sad as it is (and slightly off-topic), the open courseware program is essentially a publicity stunt for MIT. most of the online courses lack complete references, let along complete lecture notes or useful guidance. nor is this a priority for MIT. OCW has gotten nothing but positive publicity, so MIT feels no need to better the program. sure, it's better than nothing, but it's a major stretch to call it courseware.
thank heavens someone is putting up useful online resources. and thank goodness someone is giving us an idea of what the are!
Re:More useful than you think (Score:3, Interesting)
Re:See any serious problems with this story? (Score:4, Insightful)
Me too ! I agree! Me too!
God forbid that anyone -- much less the readers of a site "for nerds [about] stuff that matters' should deviate from a steady diet of Star Wars, Tentacle Anime, and MMORGS.
Because it's more important to know the exact blue-prints of the X-Wing, Y-Wing and Z-Wing fighters than to understand physics -- and that the laws of physics don't actually allow the aerobatic maneuvers these fictional starships are depicted as making.
God forbid that we should know the calculus! Better we should be techno-peasants, with metaphorical manure between our toes, unable to comprehend the technical wizardry we gawp at in the movie houses.
The only reason we all have comparatively cheap PCs on our desks -- or the special effects that makes movies like Star Wars so absorbing (if inaccurate), or the ability to download Anime film or play MMORGS -- is because someone, lots of someones, took the time to learn the calculus -- and metallurgy, and materials engineering, and chemical engineering, and electrical engineering, and even computer science.
So before you "ban" the reviewer from society, please understand that the reason your sole amusement isn't getting chased by a wild boar as each of you tries to make the other lunch, is because of "dweebs" like the reviewer who care about the science and technology that created the society that allows you to have it so good and so easy.
Democratizing publishing? (Score:5, Funny)
It was about porn and you know it. Then again, perhaps that IS democratizing publishing. Never mind.
Publishing democracy. (Score:3, Insightful)
Seriously, Ben's pronouncements about "what the web is basically about" are both subjective and irrelevent. Whatever the early Web was about, it certainly wasn't distributing math texts. Which is why not a single one of the texts he reviews actually uses Web technology, except as way of copying a PDF or Postscript file from one computer to another. This is something you coul
wow (Score:3, Funny)
Re:wow (Score:2)
Also, re your sig, you can't post and mod the same discussion.
Price != Quality (Score:5, Insightful)
Re:Price != Quality (Score:5, Insightful)
Re:Price != Quality (Score:5, Informative)
This ends in the ludicrous situation of some lecturers having 3 different editions of the same text, and the competing/equivalent books from other publishers.
Some of the lecturers handle this well by giving surplus books away to those who ask.
Re:Price != Quality (Score:5, Funny)
Re:Price != Quality (Score:2, Interesting)
A friend of mine bought a brand new Physics book. He never used it, because he started using Schuam's outlines and other books. When he went to return/resell it, he got enough for a burger and fries at the local McDonalds.
College textbooks are such a scam.
Re:Price != Quality (Score:4, Insightful)
Re:Price != Quality (Score:5, Informative)
Textbooks online (Score:4, Interesting)
Re:Price != Quality (Score:5, Informative)
All my lecturers do that. It's not an issue of being good or bad, it's an issue of time and efficiency. You need to have a textbook anyway: not all students learn best by listening to you talk, and even those students are going to miss class every once in a while. So, since you have a textbook, why not use all it has to offer?
The other thing about writing your own problems is that, in subjects such as calculus, it's pretty easy to write problems which range from ridiculously hard to literally impossible, just by adding one little term to an otherwise simple equation. Much better to use the textbook, which has been (exhaustively, one would hope) checked for such things, and which has answers (although usually not solutions, which most teachers require) in the back of the book, which IS helpful to students.
The difference between a good teacher and a bad teacher, then, is how they respond when you ask for help on a certain problem. My highly excellent physics teacher (Leonid Minkin) reads the problem from the book, writes it on the board, and then solves it. My crappy math teacher looks up the problem in his notes, and then copies his notes onto the board, and still manages to get confused in the process. They both assign problems from the book, but one is much better than the other.
Sometimes it is worth it. (Score:2)
The one thing I like about the Calculus book I bought in my first year of university was that it was useful for at least three or four courses, and it has served as a good reference well into my graduate studies. I payed about 125 (cdn$) for it, and it's definitely been worth it.
The one thing I don't get about courses teaching basic calculus is that the material hasn't really changed much in some 10's to 100's of years, meaning in theory, that any solid calculus book (perhaps by judging reviews on Amazon
Re:Price != Quality (Score:5, Interesting)
Re:Price != Quality (Score:5, Funny)
Statistics Textbooks? (Score:2, Interesting)
Does any such beast exist?
Re:Statistics Textbooks? (Score:4, Informative)
The author is nice too. When I couldn't figure out a problem instead of helping me, he pointed me to the pages I missed in his book (a round about way of making sure I actually bought the book no doubt, but helpful none the less).
Re:Statistics Textbooks? (Score:4, Informative)
Then again, I'm more interested in theoretical mathematics (abstract alebra, topology, etc) than statistics. You'll find a basic probability text that may or may not help, depending on your ability.
A major missing niche in online publishing... (Score:5, Informative)
There are some sites that come close.
Mathworld [wolfram.com], for example, has some excellent reference material on statistics, but beyond some very basic or introductory material, it tends to become sparse quickly. It's typical of much of what's out there: lots of material on mathematics, but not statistics in particular. I also have ethical objections to Wolfram, and so feel uncomfortable supporting any site hosted by his company.
PlanetMath [planetmath.org]: is a good alternative to Mathworld, filling in some material that Mathworld lacks. It has the benefit of being open. However, PlanetMath suffers from the problem of being extremely disorganized. Many of the entries seem incomplete or lacking in depth. Finally, like Mathworld, it doesn't treat statistics as much as other branches of math.
HyperStat [davidmlane.com] is a good online resource for introductory statistics. I've actually referred to it a couple of times in my research when I can't remember exactly what some formula is, and don't trust my memory of it. It covers introductory material in depth, but doesn't go into fundamentals or intermediate or advanced material. It's also sort of commercial, disorganized, and poorly designed.
Statsoft Electronic Textbook [statsoft.com] covers more advanced material, but doesn't seem to provide much explanation or background. It's really more a guide to doing analyses in STATISTICA than anything else.
Finally, I've noticed the Statistics Glossary [lancs.ac.uk] more and more, but it really is a glossary more than an explanatory reference. It also doesn't get further than very introductory topics.
In short, there is a huge niche for a comprehensive, open, in depth statistics resource ala Mathworld or PlanetMath. Perhaps PlanetMath will become more organized and complete. I've thought about contributing to PlanetMath, but I don't feel completely comfortable with it.
My deepest sympathies for you sacrifice (Score:5, Funny)
All I ask of a first year calculus book: (Score:4, Insightful)
- Minimize use of crazy symbols high school kids have never seen before. Or at least have a reference where you can look up what they mean.
That's all.
Re:All I ask of a first year calculus book: (Score:5, Insightful)
I loved being "taught" what the examples showed and given a graded homework assignment only to find that 90% of the problems could not be solved with the given examples.
Exactly. (Score:2, Insightful)
What ended up happening was we usually just copied off this one smart guy who did all the extending.
I guess T.A's are supposed to help you close the gap, but I would honestly have a few more difficult examples than a bunch of gimme exercises, which are always the ones the prof chooses to teach during lecture since they are the easi
Re:Exactly. (Score:4, Insightful)
If solving a problem becomes a monkey-see, monkey-do type of excersize where you've been trained to use specific techniques on certain homework problems, then the student is practicing a technique but not understanding the subject. If the homework problems make the student think a bit and extend those "examples" in new ways, then they might be learning. Hopefully calc students expect that at the end of the course they can solve real-world problems that haven't been solved before, and apply the tools of calculus in ways that they haven't been explicitly taught. If they can't, then the entire course was a waste of time.
A good professor should be able to help any student gain this kind of working understanding of their subject, provided the student is also willing to work as hard as necessary. But there are a lot of professors out there that aren't that good. Since students don't often have much choice in the matter, they might have to look for help elsewhere.
Another problem is that students who have spent more time rehearsing techniques (recipies) and less time actually learning math tend to do better on timed, standardized tests. So to some extent the system punishes good students and teachers.
Re:All I ask of a first year calculus book: (Score:5, Insightful)
Sorry. As a calculus teacher, my job isn't to teach you a step-by-step program for, say, maximizing a smooth function of two variables with a unique maximum on an open interval. You don't have to understand a darned thing to do that.
My job is to teach you some underlying concepts, and to give you practice using those concepts as tools to solve a variety of problems.
This means that while I will give students lots of examples, explain concepts as clearly as I possibly can, and do everything to help, I will *always* assign problems that require fundamentally different solutions from the solutions given in any of the examples.
I've seen a lot of frustrated freshman who've learned over the years to do homework by skimming a chapter quickly (if at all) before looking for the example that gives them a template to solve the particular problem. You have to get past that.
--Bruce Fields
You can contribute too. (Score:5, Informative)
The Wikipedia group has started a wiki textbook site [wikibooks.org], though the ones I've looked at are not very far along yet.
However, if you've got expertise you'd like to contribute to the public, that might be an easy place for you to do it.
Books (Score:2, Interesting)
Re:Books (Score:5, Funny)
Student: "I have a question about..."
Teacher: "RTFM!!!"
Student: "I did and I still don't understand
Teacher: "Google IS YOUR FRIEND!"
Student: "I came up with 31, 208 results, most of them trying to sell me
Teacher: "N3WBI3!!!"
Re:Books (Score:2, Insightful)
Applied Math (Score:5, Informative)
If you like free calculus books... (Score:5, Informative)
Re:If you like free calculus books... (Score:5, Interesting)
Free as in Beer? (Score:5, Funny)
Drinking and Deriving.
Clickable Links (Score:5, Informative)
Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An Introduction to Calculus [furman.edu]
Lectures on Calculus [math.uu.se]
Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals [wisc.edu]
The Calculus Bible [byu.edu]
Somehow... (Score:3, Funny)
Great, except... (Score:5, Insightful)
Re:Great, except... (Score:3, Troll)
Re:Great, except... (Score:2)
Re:Great, except... (Score:3, Insightful)
I always hated taking classes where the professor wrote the book -- there was never any point in going to class, because everything they said in class was in the book verbatim. Call me idealistic, but I expect a professor to fill in the gaps the book leaves and to help me understand the difficult concepts.
Re:Great, except... (Score:3, Interesting)
Steven S. Zumdahl at UIUC wrote an Intro Chemistry book--they still seem to be using it there even though he doesn't teach that class anymore. Here's a link to their Chem 101 class:
Every few years he would come out with a new edition of the book (he's on 6 right now), and the _only_ difference between each edition is the problems at the end of the chapters are scrambled (the numbers aren't even changed)!
I heard rumor that U of I was upset
Re:Great, except... (Score:3, Funny)
No, they're usually only interested in one thing.
Bookmark Story (Score:3, Interesting)
They later stopped the trend because students complained about how on average you read 10 pages out of every book you purchased for each class.
The bookstore figured if people are just buying the books cause the professor said so... and the students never intend on really reading it. They mind as well maximize profit by a few cents.
Slashdot Posting of the same subject (Score:5, Informative)
This thread was about on the ridiculous pricing of college textbooks posted some time back, which can be supplementary to a book review like this
real analysis (Score:2)
Hell hath no place in American primary (Score:5, Interesting)
But then again you can't find anyone riding on a yacht or playing polo in the pages of an American textbook either. The texts also can't say someone has a boyish figure, or is a busboy, or is blind, or suffers a birth defect, or is a biddy, or the best man for the job, a babe, a bookworm, or even a barbarian.
All these words are banned from U.S. textbooks on the grounds that they either elitist (polo, yacht) sexist (babe, boyish figure), offensive (blind, bookworm) ageist (biddy) or just too strong (hell which is replaced with darn or heck). God is also a banned word in the textbooks because he or she is too religious.
To get the full 500-word list of what is banned and why, consult "The Language Police," a new book by New York University professor of education Dianne Ravitch, a former education official in President George H.W. Bush's administration and a consultant to the Clinton administration.
She says she stumbled on her discovery of what's allowed and not allowed by accident because publishers insist that they do not impose censorship on their history and English textbook authors but merely apply rules of sensitivity -- which have expanded mightily since first introduced in the 1970s to weed out gender and racial bias.
Re:Hell hath no place in American primary (Score:5, Insightful)
reviewer (Score:5, Insightful)
Re:reviewer (Score:5, Informative)
Name: Ben Crowell
Bio: I teach physics and astronomy at Fullerton College, a community college in southern California. I come fully equipped with a PhD in physics from Yale, but I more fondly remember my undergraduate years at UC Berkeley. On the rare occasions when I'm away from my Linux box, I like to play jazz saxophone.
Re:reviewer (Score:5, Interesting)
10 years from now we might be looking at Dr. Crowell as the 'Linus of textbooks'.
Please check out the Wikibooks site (cited above in another post) if you are interested in contributing to the movement.
*** SPOILER WARNING *** (Score:5, Funny)
Wheelock's Latin Grammar (Score:5, Insightful)
It's about the fact that every single year, Wheelock comes out with a new and improved Latin textbook, making the old ones obsolete, so that I couldn't sell mine back to the school store and recoup a small portion of my investment.
Now, when was the last time Latin grammar changed? About 1900 years ago? They could use Latin grammar texts from 50 years ago, and they'd be as good today as they were then. It seems to me that professors are complicit in this little scam.
The same goes for calculus. My calculus text was obsolete by the time I finished the course. Did calculus change? Did they put in some brand new groundbreaking stuff about measuring curves? No, they just wanted to make sure I couldn't sell back my book for others to buy more cheaply than the "new" one.
At the University of Texas, the cost of my books made up at least 30% of my total tuition costs. How insane is that? It's a racket, plain and simple.
Re:Wheelock's Latin Grammar (Score:2, Interesting)
Latin grammar remains the same, but the method for teaching it in many American universities changes very quickly. American Latin teaching is very suceptive to fads, the majority of which turn out to be very effective and often negatively impact the education students involved. The method presented in the latest edition is wildly different than Wheelock's original method of the 50's.
If you don't like paying for a grammar, and can deal with the rote-learning method of a century ago, check out Textkit [textkit.com], a pr
progress in calculus (Score:5, Funny)
What, you have not heard about the recent groundbreaking discoveries in calculus?
It is amazing how these textbooks manage to keep up.
Re:Wheelock's Latin Grammar (Score:3, Interesting)
Unfortunately, none of the options are good. Share books? Upgrade the entire class to the next edition? Spend ten minutes each day trying to reconcile the two? Scour eBa
EE students (Score:3, Informative)
The original is at ibiblio.org [ibiblio.org] though.
PDF Format? (Score:2, Funny)
Sweet. File-Print-Canon Copier
At 80ppm, it'll be done printing at the same time I can go down to the supply closet and get some 3 ring binders.
On a more serious note, you can get a high school kid to sell you his math books (or history, science, english) for some beer or pot.
My Free Calc Book Is Better! (Score:4, Funny)
My undergraduate universtiy Computer Science department had a small lobby with tables and chairs. Professors used to put their old books on the tables for students to take and keep if they found the book useful.
One day I was browsing the free books when I saw a box of brand new calculus books. It seemed odd, but I thought, "Well these books must be free". It was a nice calc book so I took one.
As I was walking out the building it occured to me that maybe sombody just put the box down for a minute to use the restroom or something. I better return the book. By the time I got back to the lobby the box was gone.
I still have the book.
Democratize publishing (Score:3, Insightful)
Re:Democratize publishing (Score:2)
I suspect that what the author meant was "Lowering the economic barrier to publishing for a wide audience."
DO NOT SLASHDOT AARON (Score:5, Interesting)
Re:DO NOT SLASHDOT AARON (Score:2)
Posting on slashdot with the title "DO NOT SLASHDOT..." is oxymoron in action...
Damn 2 minute limit, what if I'm only funny two minutes at a time?Calculus textbooks should not be free! (Score:3, Funny)
Removing the cost for treeware is poor courseware design, as it introduces the danger of making poor choices without warning of the potential ramifications.
Of course, there is that significant portion of humanity which clicks yes, and then spends countless hours sorting out the damage from higgledy-piggledy courseware installation. The poster certainly falls into this category...
Shameless plug... (Score:2)
what is source? when is it open? (Score:3, Interesting)
THis is totally a side issue, but the source thing really interests me. i don't know a lot about what format actual source code comes in, but a lot of the software I download has its souce basically in a textfile...so here's my question: is having to format the book (for presentation, headings, etc.) any different than having to put source code through a compiler, and possibly having to port? Is the source in this case really unavailable,, since the text of the document is right there to be had?
Just curious...
Re:what is source? when is it open? (Score:2, Insightful)
Library of Alexandria (Score:2, Interesting)
Great review (Score:3, Insightful)
Another comment - most of these books seem to cover single-variable only - if you're going to need it eventually (as i did, being a physicist), i really think it's helpful to have vector analysis/differentiation/integration covered in the same book in a unified presentation. Again I'm thinking Stewart here.
I have read a dead-tree "calculus in order of historcal development" book before and it was a bit sticky but it was intended for more advanced maths or history-of-maths students... maybe that was the intended audience of the Shchepin book?
CHEAPER AT AMAZON.COM! (Score:4, Funny)
CBV
'Calculus Made Easy' still a great book (Score:2, Insightful)
Highly Recommended!
Amazon Listing [amazon.com]
GPL Abuse (Score:4, Informative)
I have talked to a number of authors who applied the GPL to their products thinking that it simply made the binaries "free as in beer" and were shocked that I would ask for their source code.
It appears the authors' intents were to make these texts open and freely available, but the software-oriented GPL doesn't seem to be the appropriate license for what they are trying to do.
There are even some situations in software, such as image-based systems like Smalltalk (Squeak as an example), where the GPL's orientation around classical library linkage ends up inadvertently reducing the "free as in speech"-ness.
You get what you pay for (Score:3, Interesting)
When I was in college, our physics books were a "collaborative" book developed by Thomas Moore and "published" by McGraw-Hill. I dug one of the volumes out- it's bound with that cheesy plastic springy binder, because my college had to print it. So it's practically falling apart- whereas the textbooks from my father's classes are still looking good on his shelf in his office.
Doing your homework was fun- absolutely every problem set we did had at LEAST one mistake, to the point that our physics teacher was probably the most annoyed and frustrated of all of us as we went over our homework the next day. Every problem had to be worked out by the class together and double-checked, because the teacher's edition was wrong too! Great except when you're behind, everyone understood the problem, and you need to catch up on the curriculum schedule.
Graphs has wrong units, labels, variable names, or simply didn't exist but had problems referencing them. Equations were flat-out wrong or had typos. Page numbers and section numbers didn't match(Ie "see section 3-2 for more information on..."). Diagrams looked like they were drawn by a kid(you know, things like sailboats with triangle sails and trapezoid hulls? Flowers with smiley faces? Etc.)
The kicker? We were the second year to use the book, and the first year's class had turned in a HUGE list of corrections to Moore. The second edition sprouted even more errors, and some of the errors from the first year were never corrected. We weren't the only ones using it, either; plenty of other schools turned in corrections as well. I feel sorry for the kids at Pomona, must have been embarrassing to know other schools were using it.
OMG, I used Kiesler in 1976 (Score:5, Interesting)
I was in the Honors Math program, and the program director, in a moment of insanity, decided to use Kiesler's new book with the Infinitesimals approach. But there was only one problem, the book wasn't actually IN PRINT yet. Every monday, we received a new chapter of the book's galley proofs, followed by a long session of corrections. The teacher would write the errata on the blackboard and we wrote them in our texts. This took almost the entire session. We met 3 times a week, so the errata effectively nuked 1/3 of our classroom time.
Of course, this isn't likely to be a problem in the revised 2nd edition. However, the problem with this text is that it uses a completely nonstandard approach to calculus. The Infinitesimals approach is weak on the standard methods you really study calculus FOR, like differential equations. My roommate took the regular calc course and I studied with him, learning a few standard differentiation methods. I used a few of those techniques in the midterm test, they were marked wrong (even though they were the correct answers) and got called into the teacher's office. He said, "you didn't learn that in MY COURSE, did you?" We had to do everything the hard way, with infinitesimals, which was supposed to make you a better mathematician. It didn't.
As an amusing side note, I had a scheduling conflict with another final and had to take a makeup test, I was assigned a room to take the test all by myself, the teacher said he'd come back at the end to collect the test and if I left the room, he'd assumed I cheated and he'd give me an F. During the test, the building caught on fire on an upper floor and smoke started to drift in through the ducts. A campus security cop came in the room and told me to leave. I said I wouldn't, I only had 10 more minutes left on the test and I could finish before the fire spread. The cop grabbed me and shoved me out the door. The teacher gave me an F on the final for leaving the room. I got a D+ for the course, a passing grade, and that was good enough for me.
Anyway, I suppose the main problem was that the teachers hadn't figured out how to teach Infinitesimal Calculus yet, and I suspect they still haven't. Grappling with the abstraction of hyperreal numbers is extremely impractical in a world where everyone else uses an entirely different methodology. Avoid this text if you don't want your math skills permanently damaged. I think I'll pick up one of these other freebie calc texts and learn it over from scratch.
Re:OMG, I used Kiesler in 1976 (Score:5, Interesting)
I happened to run across the book on Keisler's site a couple of months ago, and... I read the whole pdf through virtually non-stop. All 913 pages. This is by far the best introduction to calculus I've ever seen - very intuitive and clean.
Those of you arguing for the conventional, limits-based approach vs. the "nonstandard", infinitesimal-based approach are missing the point that the very notation in standard use for calculus (dy/dx etc.) really makes no sense without a notion of infinitesimal. Originally Newton developed calculus in terms of limits, while Leibniz used infinitesimals. Leibniz's notation won out over Newton's, because it accords with the way mathematicians intuitively think about calculus. Neither approach was on a sound mathematical footing until the limits-based approach was formalized in the 1870's. The infinitesimal-based approach was only formalized in 1960, by Robinson - the mathematical tools needed to do so were not available in the 19th century. Due to an historical accident Robinson's approach is called "nonstandard analysis", but the implication that there is anything deficient or deviant about it does not follow. (BTW, in addition to infinitesimals, the hyperreals (or "nonstandard numbers") also include infinite numbers.)
With this approach, developed in Keisler's book, not only is the notation in accord with the model, but many results are much more straightforward to understand and to prove. No more long, tedious epsilon-delta arguments. Really, the only thing complicated about using nonstandard numbers for calculus is the formal development of the hyperreals - and in this book that is relegated to a brief treatment in an appendix. It's easy enough to state and use the properties of the hyperreals without having to go through their formal mathematical construction.
I find it disheartening that the book was allowed to go out of print, and that there are now no (as far as I'm aware) current popular calculus texts using the infinitesimal-based approach. I, like the original poster, and like most students learning today, was always confused by what you could and couldn't do with dy and dx. How I wish I'd had this book 20 years ago.
The upside is that the book is now freely available on the author's site! Go get it!
Bob Hearn
This is a very heartening thing (Score:3, Interesting)
Open source books (where some others can create derived works too) will make the future good for all (in a statistical sense -- there will be a few that benefit from withholding information).
The main concerns are legal threats (e.g. someone like SCO saying, "All partial derivatives are derivative work of SCO"), public perception.
The perception that the free material is somehow inferior can be propagated (e.g. in societies that pride on conspicuous consumption, the people that influence decisions can make a statement against free books), and general bitterness when some contributors don't think they are given credit.
I envison a big movement of free educational books, where the educators/scientists provide information, techies volunteer effort to find effective means of publishing/presentation, and end users do QA and feedback.
A physicist will come up with a nice theory, a document designer will design a fancy document, a web kiddie will create fancy animations explaining the concept, and all will fit into a standard form of information exchange (provided a large set of people overcome egos, preconceptions and prejudices).
S
I've taken two courses with Paul Garrett (Score:3, Informative)
His style tends to be slightly curt, but as stated, this fits with his course. His material provides very good overviews, and strives to explain everything in 'layman's terms,' something that almost every one of his students have problems with at first. As an example, he wants factorial explained when you use it the first time (he's not so mundane to make you do this every time on every assignment, thankfully.) This means you [theoretically] could read the book start to finish without too much previous knowledge, and understand most of it.
Definitely worth a look, and if you're currently at, or going to attend, the University of Minnesota, I highly recommend you look up Garrett's courses and consider taking them.
Linear Algebra? (Score:2)
Open Source K-12 texts can save billions (Score:4, Interesting)
The textbook industry began its climb to prominence in the 1950's and 60's's, as Baby Boomers entered private and public educational institutions in unpecedented numbers. There was a real need for mass produced educational materials, and commercial textbook publishers filled the demand.
As enrollment in educational institutions continued to increase, commercial educational publishers gradually became default the suppliers of text-based educational materials.
Realizing that they had a near monopoly on the educational publishing market, commercial publishers began to raise prices and force "new editions" of classic textbooks into the market to compell new purchases, and defeat the used textbook market. Also, textbook prices began to rise precipitously; it's not unusual for a high school textbook to approach $100, or more.
Continued dependence on commercial publishers for basic textbooks has led to a "fox is living in the henhouse" situation. As a result, massive diseconomies and inefficiencies have been introduced to the academic textbook market.
We now live in a time where most consumers can walk into their neighborhood bookstore and purchase a 10th-grade level book on Euclidean Geometry for $10-15. Yet, the same curriculum material, embellished for a 10th-grade school district, can cast upwards of $100, often in addition to the purchase of required ancillary materials (teacher's guides, study guides, lab tapes, etc.).
Until recently, short of requiring every teacher (or school district) to write its own textbooks, nothing could be done about this costly situation.
With the advent of new Internet technology, and new intellectual property licensing innovations, it is now possible to create free high-quality, distributed banks of educational content. This content can published and distributed for far less than similar materials provided by commercial publishers.
Here is a listing of some well-known open source educational projects
Some new current open source content projects are as follows:
California Open Source Textbook Project (conducting pilot projects)
http://www.opensourcetext.org
Wikipedia World History Project (a beginning pilot)
http://wikibooks.org/wiki/World_History_P
MIT's OpenCourseWare project (a university =based open curriculum project)
http://ocw.mit.edu/index.html
There is a burgeoning movement to create "open source" educational content banks, from which insitutional (even individual) users can select - and publish - content about virtually *any* educational topic. These content resevoirs will be constructed to meet the most demanding curriculum frameworks, at all levels of curriculum instruction.
The open educational content movement makes sense because the bulk of formal educational content - i.e. the content that is delivered to student by educational institutions - doesn't change very much from year to year. For instance, there has been almost no change in the Calculus, or Euclidean Geometry for hundreds of years. Some basic curriculum areas do change, although slowly (with a very few exceptions). Thus, it's possible to imagine a scenario where free, open source access to educational content - based on sound curriculum frameworks put forward by our best public and private institutions - would benefit educational institutions, students, and taxpayers. More, bettwr quality, and less costly educational content will result.
Many foreign governments and international agencies are on the constant lookout for high quality inexpensive acces to high quality educational content in English, and other languages; they will also benefit from the reduced cost, greater quality, and wider availablility of open source educational content.
U.S. Navy Calculus book (Score:5, Interesting)
After the war, the theory people took over again, of course.
Re:U.S. Navy Calculus book (Score:3, Funny)
Most widely used method today is to type it in your pirated copy of Maple or Mathematica, which is even more practical.
It wasn't just the Navy.... (Score:3, Informative)
Google (Score:3, Informative)
The text choices of my professors always seemed so arbitrary, and the same information appears in countless forums, web pages, and so forth. Instead of reading pages 110-115 in a $90 text, I google for "Microsoft Active Directory" or "Kernal Hacking," and spend $90 on a giant honking steak dinner
My favorite excerpts from "The Calculus Bible" (Score:3, Funny)
"In the beginning, God created X, and X was without function. And God said, "Let there be f(X)!" and there was f(X). And God created Y to hold the f(X) and saw that it was good."
"And the serpent said unto Eve, 'has God told you that you may divide by any number in the garden?' And she replied unto him, 'By any number of the garden we may divide, but the by the zero in the center of the garden we must not divide, lest we die.' Then the serpent said unto her, 'You will not die. God knows that if you divide by the zero, you will become a Math professor and will become like God, or at least think you are.'
"And thus it is written that a Sine shall leave his mother, and a Cosine shall leave their home, and the two of them squared shall be as one."
Problem with math books(or me) (Score:3, Funny)
Completely lost I plodded through the remaining pages in the section.
I then looked at the questions and could answer every one correctly. I had already learned what the book was trying to teach and still couldn't understand the chapter.
Harrison's Laws of Math Textbooks (Score:3, Funny)
2. Any section entitled "Applications of ..." is going to be a lot of work.
Re:What is Calculus for? (Score:2)
Re:What is Calculus for? (Score:4, Insightful)
I never liked math much. I could figure it out, but physics, chemistry, comp. sci were more related to the world we live in. It was later in college when I had the painful realization that without math all those disciplines (and most others) are meaningless. I regret I had not put more effort into it then, that would have made my life much easier now. For example I took a Linear Algebra course in soph. year and after the exam week I had forgotten what an eigenvector was. It would have been nice for the prof. to point out the importance and the uses of it. Now I take a Quantum Computing course and I had to go back to the 4 year old dusty Linear Algebra notes for a review.
Re:What is Calculus for? (Score:2, Insightful)
Re:Aaaarrrgggghhhhh! (Score:2, Funny)